Identification Male And Female Turkey .FGM is a term used to describe any procedure that involves either complete or partial removal of the female genital organs externally or any other harm to female genital organs because of medical or other reasons that are not related to culture.
What percentage of women and the girls affected?
Around around 200 million females and women living currently could have suffered FGM however, rates of FGM are growing, reflecting the world’s population increase.
Females and females who’ve been subjected to FGM reside primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa and those in Arab States, but FGM is also practiced in certain countries of Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America. It is also practiced by people who are migrant in Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. (See more.)
Should FGM practices continue at the current level, 68 million girls will be eliminated between the years 2015 and the year 2030 in the 25 countries where FGM is practiced regularly and more recent figures are available.
One of the biggest challenges is not just securing girls currently at risk, but also making sure that girls who are born in the near future are safe from the risks associated with FGM. This is particularly important given the fact that countries that have FGM concentrations are experiencing high growth in population and have large populations of young people.
In the year 2019 the estimate was at 4.1 million females were the risk of FGM. The number of girls who are cut each year is predicted to reach 4.6 million girls by 2030. Between 2022 and 2022 COVID-19 increased the risk for females and women, specifically women at the risk of FGM.
This epidemic has further strengthened gender inequality, economic disparities and health risk for girls and women and females, and disrupted prevention programmes to end FGM and various other practices that are harmful. UNFPA estimate that, due to COVID-19, two million instances of FGM could be reported over the next 10 years, which could otherwise have been avoided and result in a 33 percent decrease in the progress toward the end of FGM practices.
What is the impact of FGM impact how it affects the health for women and girls?
FGM can have serious consequences on health and health of sexual and reproduction health women and women.
The consequences associated with FGM vary based on a range of elements which include the kind of FGM performed as well as the knowledge of the surgeon as well as the cleanliness conditions in which it’s carried out, the level that is resistant and generally health condition for the female or male performing the procedure. The possibility of complications can be present with any type of FGM however they are more common in those who suffer from infibulation..
The immediate complications are severe pain, shock, hemorrhage or infection and urinary retention. They can also cause ulceration of the genital area and injuries to the surrounding tissue and the surrounding tissue, wound infection and urinary infections and fever and septicemia. Hemorrhage and infection may be serious enough to lead to death.
The long-term consequences are complications during birth as well as anaemia, creation of cysts and abscesses that cause keloid scars. injury to the urethra, resulting in dyspareunia, urinary incontinence (painful sexual contact) as well as sexual dysfunction, an increased sensitivity of the genital tract and an increased likelihood of HIV transmission as well as psychological consequences.
Infibulation, or Type III FGM is a condition that can result in total vaginal obstruction, resulting from the accumulation of menstrual fluid within the vagina and the uterus. Infibulation can create an physical barrier that prevents sexual activity and birth. Infibulated woman is therefore required to be subjected to a gradual dilation her vaginal opening prior to sexual intimacy is possible.
Most often, infibulated women get cut open during the night of their wedding (by an unmarried husband, or circumciser) so that the husband is able to become intimate and intimate with wife. After childbirth some women are also required to be cut again due to the fact that the vaginal openings are too small to allow the passage of a newborn. Infibulation may also cause menstrual and urinary disorders, frequent incontinence and UTIs as well as fistulas and infertility.
What are the implications of pregnancy?
A study conducted recently found that, when compared to women who were not exposed to FGM women who suffered FGM had a significantly higher chance of needing the Caesarean section, an episiotomy and an prolonged hospital stay and in addition, of having post-partum hemorrhage.
Women who have had infibulation are much more likely to be afflicted by prolonged and blocked labour, often leading to foetal deaths and fistula obstetrica. Babies born to mothers who have experienced more extensive types in FGM are at a higher chance of dying before birth.
Recent studies by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, The World Bank and the United Nations Population Division reveal that the majority of countries with high levels of FGM are also home to high mortality rates and the highest rates of deaths from maternal causes. Two high-risk countries are of the four countries that have the highest rates of deaths from maternal causes worldwide. Five of the high-prevalence nations have maternal mortality rates of 550/100,000 live births and over.
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Does there exist a connection with FGM and the possibility for HIV infection?
When a single instrument is employed to cut a number of girls, as is typically the scenario in the communities where large groups that of girls have been cut the same day in the rites of a social or cultural group there is a possibility for HIV transmission.
Furthermore, due to injury to male sexual organs of the female, interactions could result in bleeding of tissues which increases the chance for HIV transmission. This is also true in the case of the loss of blood which occurs during the birth of a child.
What can be the mental consequences of FGM?
FGM could have lasting consequences for females and the girls that undergo FGM. The psychological stress caused by the procedure could cause behavioral changes for children, and are linked to the loss of confidence and confidence for caregivers. In the long run women can experience anxieties and depression. Sexual dysfunction can also lead to divorce or marital conflict.
What are the various types of FGM?
The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified four kinds of FGM:
Type I also known as the clitoridectomy Complete or partial removal of the clitoris or the preuce.
Type II also known as excision Total or partial excision from the clitoris and the labia minora without or with excision from the major labia. How much tissue is removed differs widely from one community to another.
Type III Also known as infibulation The narrowing of the vaginal opening with an enveloping seal. The seal is created by cutting and moving the labia minora as well as that of the main labia. It can be done with or without the removal from the clitoris.
Type IV Other dangerous procedures that affect the female genitalia not for medical reasons such as cutting, piercing, pricking or scraping.
Other terms that are associated with FGM include DE infibulation, incision and infibulation
Incision refers to making cuts in the clitoris or cutting free the clitoral prepuce, but it also relates to incisions made in the vaginal wall and to incision of the perineum and the symphysis.
DE infibulation refers to the practice of cutting open a woman who has been infibulated to allow intercourse or to facilitate childbirth. The process of reinfibulation is the process of stitching the external labia back together following DE infibulation.
Which kinds are most prevalent?
Typs I and II are the most prevalent however there are variations across nations. Type III – infibulation is reported by around 10% of sufferers and is more likely to happen in Somalia and northwestern Sudan and Djibouti.
Why do we have different terms to describe FGM including female cutting of the genital area and the female circumcision?
The language used to describe this process has undergone numerous variations.
The first time the procedure gained the attention of the world the practice was generally called “female circumcision.” (In Eastern and Northern Africa, the term “female circumcision” is commonly used to refer to FGM Type I.) However the phrase “female circumcision” has been condemned for drawing a connection between men’s circumcision and creating confusion between the two different practices. In addition, there is an issue that health experts from many Eastern and Southern African countries favor male circumcision in order to lessen the risk of HIV transmission. FGM is, on the contrary side, may increase the chance in HIV transmitting.
It is also often argued that the word “circumcision” obscures the severe physical and psychological consequences of genital slicing on women. UNFPA does not advocate the use for the phrase “female circumcision” because the health consequences for male and female circumcisions are quite different.
The phrase “female genital mutilation” is employed by a range in women’s health and the human rights groups. It makes clear the distinction between male and female circumcision. The use of the word “mutilation” also emphasizes the seriousness of the practice and emphasizes that it violates the rights of women and girls’ rights as human beings.
The phrase gained traction in the latter part of the 1970s and in the years since, it’s been used in a variety of United Nations conference documents and was used as a strategy and advocacy instrument. The resolution 65/170 of the United Nations. Resolution 65/170, Member States clearly declared that female genital mutilation is the appropriate term to describe the harmful practice.
In the mid-1990s, the phrase “female genital cutting” was created, in part due to displeasure with the word “female genital mutilation.” There is concern that some communities might find the word “mutilation” demeaning, or that it implies that practitioners or parents perform the procedure in a malicious manner.
Many are concerned that the phrase “female genital mutilation” could be a source of discontent for communities that practice it or trigger some backlash, and possibly increase how many girls are who are subject to the procedure.
Certain organizations accept both terms, and refer in “female genital mutilation/cutting” or FGM/C.
What terms does UNFPA employ?
UNFPA is a proponent of an anthropological perspective regarding the issue, and the term “female genital mutilation” more precisely is the term used to describe the procedure in a human rights standpoint.
Nowadays, a growing amount of countries have banned the practice and more communities have pledged to stop it, which indicates that social and beliefs about this practice have been challenged by the communities themselves, in addition to regional, national and international decision makers. It is therefore time to push toward complete abandonment of the practice by focusing on the human rights aspect of the problem.
In addition, the phrase “female genital mutilation (FGM)” is also used in a variety of UN and document from the intergovernmental community. A recent example can be found in the UN Secretary-General’s Report ( A/71/209) on the intensification of efforts worldwide to eliminate of female Genital Mutilations. Other documents that reference “female genital mutilation” include the Report of the Secretary-General on the End of Female Genital Mutilation of the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council to end female Genital mutilation, Protocol for the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa; Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action; and Eliminating female genital mutilation: an interagency declaration. And every year, on the 6th of February it is the day that on the 6th of February, the United Nations observes the ” International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation.”
What is the source of the practice? from?
The roots of the practice are not clear. It was practiced prior to the advent in Christianity and Islam. There is a belief that some Egyptian Mummies exhibit the features of FGM.
The historians such as Herodotus assert that during the 5th century BC the Phoenicians as well as The Hittites and the Ethiopians were practicing circumcision.
There is also evidence that circumcision rituals were practiced in the tropical regions of Africa and in the Philippines as well as by certain tribes of the Upper Amazon, by women from the Arunta tribe in Australia, and by certain early Romans and Arabs.
In in the 50s, circumcision had been utilized across Western Europe and the United States to treat apparent illnesses such as epilepsy, hysteria as well as masturbation, mental disorders and the nymphomania and melancholia. This means that this practice FGM has been practiced by various peoples and societies throughout the centuries and continents.
What is the age at which FGM done?
It is different. In certain regions, FGM is carried out at the time of infancy, beginning as early as just a few days after the birth. In other areas the process occurs during the early years of childhood, prior to the date of marriage, or during the first pregnancy of a woman or shortly after the birth of the first child. Recent studies suggest that the age is decreasing in certain areas and the majority of FGM being performed on girls between the years of between 0 and 15 years of age.
Where is FGM where is it practiced?
FGM is currently being documented in 92 countries across the globe through nationally representative data as well as in indirect estimations (usually in countries in which FGM is practiced primarily in diaspora groups) or small-scale research studies or the evidence of anecdotes and the media. This demonstrates the global nature of the unsafe practice and the necessity for an international and thorough response to eradicate FGM.
Within Africa, FGM is known to be practiced by some populations in 33 different countries. Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Cote D’Ivoire Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe
Certain ethnic groups from Asian countries are known to practice FGM and FGM, such as in communities that reside in India, Indonesia, Malaysia as well as Malaysia, the Maldives, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
Within the Middle East, the practice is prevalent in Oman as well as Oman, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen and also within Iraq, Iran, Jordan and the State of Palestine.
Within Eastern Europe, recent info suggests that certain groups practice FGM within Georgia and in the Russian Federation.
Then, in South America, certain communities are recognized as having FGM within Colombia, Ecuador, Panama and Peru.
And in several west-coast countries, such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand as well as in the United States, the United Kingdom and many other European Countries, FGM is practiced among diaspora communities from regions that have a culture of FGM.
Who is the person who performs FGM?
FGM is typically performed by elderly individuals in the community (usually but not exclusively women) who are entrusted with this job or the traditional birth attendants. In certain communities, FGM may be carried out by traditional health practitioners, (male) barbers, members of herbalists, secret societies and sometimes even a female relative.
In certain instances medical professionals may do FGM. This is often referred to by the term “medicalization” of FGM. According to UNFPA’s latest estimates, about one-in-four girls and women aged between from 15 and 49 who underwent FGM (or 52 million) were cut by health personnel.
(In certain countries, the figure can go up to three in 4 girls.) The proportion can be twice that high for teenagers (34 percent among girls between fifteen and 19) in comparison to older women (16 percent for women between 45 and 49). Based on estimates from surveys of demographics and health studies and multi-indicator cluster surveys countries in which the majority of FGM cases are handled by health personnel are Egypt (38 percent), Sudan (67%), Kenya (15%), Nigeria (13%) and Guinea (15%).
What tools are used for performing FGM?
FGM is performed using special knives, scissors scalpels, glass pieces and razor blades. Anesthesia and antiseptics are not typically utilized unless the procedure has been executed by medical professionals. In the communities where infibulations are used, the legs of girls are usually tied together to prevent them from moving for 10-14 days, which allows the growth from scar tissue.
What is the reason FGM done?
In all societies where it is practiced female genital mutilation (FGM) is a sign of perpetuated gender discrimination. In countries where it is widespread, FGM is supported by both males and women, often without hesitation, and anyone that does not adhere to the rules could be subjected to ridicule, harassment and the threat of ostracism. It can be challenging for families to stop FGM without the support of the community at large. In reality, it is often practiced even though it is acknowledged to cause hurt on girls due to the social benefits of the practice are thought to be more than the disadvantages.
The motivations behind the practice of FGM are generally classified into 5 categories.
Psychosexual motives: FGM is carried out in order to regulate the sexuality of women, which can be described as insatiable if certain parts of the genitalia, specifically the clitoris, aren’t removed. It is believed that it will ensure the virginity of the bride before marriage and the fidelity that follows, and to increase male sexual pleasure.
Social and reasons of culture: FGM is seen as part of a girl’s journey into the world of womanhood and as an integral element of a community’s culture tradition. Some myths about female genitals (e.g. the idea that an uncut clitoris can expand in size to the extent of penis or that FGM increases fertility or help in the survival of children) keep the tradition alive.
hygiene and aesthetic motives: In some communities, female genitalia that are externally visible are considered to be dirty and unattractive and are removed to improve hygiene and aesthetic appeal.
Religious motives: Although FGM is not approved by Islam or Christianity or Christianity, a false religious doctrine is frequently employed to support the use of FGM.
Social and economic factors: In many communities, FGM is a prerequisite for marriage. When women are dependent upon men financial needs can be a major driving force behind the procedure. FGM often is a requirement for inheriting rights. It can also be a significant revenue source for doctors.
Are FGM obligatory by some religions?
There is no religion that promotes or supports FGM. Yet, over 50% of females and women from four of 14 countries with data available considered FGM as a requirement of their religion.
And even though FGM is frequently viewed as being linked to Islam possibly because it is practiced by a variety of Muslim groups however, it’s not the only way to go. Islamic groups are practicing FGM, and many non-Islamic groups do, like certain Christians, Ethiopian Jews, and those who follow particular traditions of African religions.
FGM is therefore a social not a religious one. Indeed several religious leaders have condemned it.
Because FGM is an established tradition in the culture Can it be considered a crime?
Yes. The culture and traditions provide a foundation to ensure human wellbeing, and cultural arguments cannot be used to support the violence of people, either both genders. Furthermore, the concept of culture isn’t static, but is constantly changing and evolving. But, any plans for eliminating FGM must be designed and implemented in a manner that takes into account the culture and social context of the communities who practice FGM. It is possible to change the way that people conduct themselves when they recognize the dangers of specific ways of life and when they understand that they can eliminate harmful practices while abandoning the important aspects of their tradition.
Does anyone have the power to alter age-old cultural practices like FGM?
Every child is entitled to be safe from harm in any setting and in all circumstances. The campaign to stop FGM that is usually local in its origins – is meant to shield girls from serious permanent and totally unnecessary harm. It is evident that the majority of people living in countries affected are in favor of stopping cutting girls and that the general the support of FGM is decreasing even in places where it is nearly everywhere (such like Egypt and Sudan). To end FGM requires a lot of effort and ongoing cooperation from all levels of society including families and communities as well as the religious and others, media, government officials and the international community.
What’s the relationship with FGM and race?
The most important factor is ethnicity. aspect when it comes to FGM prevalence, and it is not limited to social classes and degree of education. People belonging to certain ethnic groups generally follow similar social standards for example, whether or not to use FGM regardless of where they reside.
The FGM prevalence for the ethnic Somalis who reside in Kenya for instance at 94% is higher than the 99 percent prevalence within Somalia as compared to Kenya’s Kenyan average of 21 percent according to the most current data available.
However, there are some exceptions. For Senegal for instance, there exist huge differences in FGM prevalence for Mandingoes women, based on the location they reside – 56% in urban areas and the 79 percent within rural regions. In the same way, FGM prevalence among the Popular is ranging between 39 percent in urban areas and up to the 67 percent for rural communities.
How do females and women who’ve been through FGM comment on it?
Women across the globe are sharing their stories of their struggles and pushing for changes.
“It is what my grandmother called the three feminine sorrows: the day of circumcision, the wedding night and the birth of a baby.” –From “The Three Feminine Sorrows,” an Somali poem
“My two sisters, myself and our mother went to visit our family back home. I assumed we were going for a holiday. A bit later they told us that we were going to be infibulated. The day before our operation was due to take place, another girl was infibulated and she died because of the operation.
We were so scared and didn’t want to suffer the same fate. But our parents told us it was an obligation, so we went. We fought back; we really thought we were going to die because of the pain. You have one woman holding your mouth so you won’t scream, two holding your chest and the other two holding your legs.
After we were infibulated, we had rope tied across our legs so it was like we had to learn to walk again. We had to try to go to the toilet. If you couldn’t pass water in the next 10 days something was wrong. We were lucky, I suppose. We gradually recovered and didn’t die like the other girl. But the memory and the pain never really go away.” Zainab, who was injured at the age of eight (from WHO)
“I will never subject my child to FGM if she happens to be a girl, and I will teach her the consequences of the practice early on.” – Kadiga, Ethiopia
“In my village , there’s one girl older than I am and was not cut, because I spoke to her parents. I shared with them how the procedure had affected me, and how it affected me and led me to distrust my parents. They decided that they didn’t wish this to happen to their daughter.” -Meaza, 15, years old
What is the meaning of “medicalization of FGM” mean?
According to WHO The Medicalization FGM is the case when FGM is administered by a health professional like an individual health worker or midwife, nurse, or physician. Medicalized FGM may be performed in the public or private clinic in the privacy of your home or in other locations.
Also, it involves the process of re-infibulation at any time in in the life of a woman. In 2010 a joint interagency Global Strategy to prevent health professionals from performing FGM was announced. In 2016 WHO also issued guidelines for the management of health problems resulting that result from FGM.
The strategy is based on consensus among experts across the globe, United Nations entities and the Member States they represent. Additionally, the global commitment to end all kinds of FGM in 2030 is clearly laid out in the target 5.3 in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).
Isn’t it more secure for FGM to be done by a qualified health worker, rather than anyone with no medical background?
FGM cannot be considered “safe”. Even if FGM is done in a clean, safe setting and performed by a medical expert, there could be grave health consequences right away and later on. Medicalized FGM can create a false sense of security. There are significant risks with all types of FGM and medically-informed FGM.
Furthermore it is not a medical reason for FGM. The idea of promoting any kind of harm or cutting to the genitals of females and women and one who suggests that health professionals be involved in the procedure is not acceptable from an ethical, health and public health and Human rights standpoint.
Professionally trained health personnel who use female genital mutilation for genitals violate the rights of girls and the rights of women to live, bodily and mental integrity and health. They also violate the basic medical principle that says “do no harm.”
In addition, the idea that an “minor” genital cut will assist in avoiding more serious kinds of FGM is not supported by evidence. A number of studies have proven that females may be subjected FGM often in the event that members of their community or family are not satisfied with the results of previous procedures.
There is evidence to suggest that FGM procedures that are described by some as “just a nick” are typically more severe types of FGM. A study conducted in Sudan discovered that, of women who claimed to have had the form of FGM that was deemed “just a prick,” around one third had suffered from infibulation and all of them had experienced the loss from the labia minora and their labia minora.
If medical professionals carry out FGM They wrongly justify the practice as medically valid or beneficial to women and female health. And since medical professionals often have an authority, power and respect in the society this practice can to institutionalize the practice.
What is the UNFPA’s policy on FGM?
UNFPA and UNICEF Together, they lead the most comprehensive worldwide program to speed up the removal of FGM and assuring care for the consequences. This The program works with government agencies and civil society groups, networks of parliamentarians, religious leaders as well as young people and advocates for human rights and academic institutions to:
Help in the formulation of policies and legislation and make sure that there are enough resources to stop FGM;
Enhance the impact of interventions that broaden the knowledge base about the harmful effects of FGM and encourage champions to fight to fight for its elimination.
Promote the gender-based equal rights and the rights of girls and woman’s right to rights.
Young people can be empowered to stop FGM within their communities.
Stop the trend of medicalization by energizing health professionals to see FGM as an infraction of human rights
Incorporate FGM reactions in the areas of sexual and reproductive health as well as reproductive health, maternal and infant health, and child protection services. These areas provide access points for the identification and helping women and those who have been or who have been exposed to FGM.
Incorporate FGM into health education programs, mobilise doctors nurses and midwives to promote FGM treatment and care, and empower health practitioners to be role models, counselors and supporters in the efforts to stop FGM; and
Establish a global hub for knowledge for the assessment and diffusion the social norms and good practices that are reflected in the Joint Programme to inform decision-making and enhanced programming.
The Joint Programme recognizes that eliminating FGM requires that communities make a joint and concerted decision to ensure that no one girl or family member is affected due to the choice.
This strategy has led to improvements. Civil society groups are now implementing community-led education and discussion sessions about the rights of people and health. They are supporting an increasing amount of communities announce their abstention from FGM.
The shift is happening among religious officials, many of whom have moved from promoting FGM to actively denying the practice. There’s been an increase in the number of public declarations separating FGM from the religion and advocating for the abolition FGM as a practice.
Thanks to UNFPA Technical guidance and assistance it has led to an increase in the number of initiatives to increase the effectiveness that the public health services in stopping FGM and as often as feasible, treating victims and decreasing its negative impact to women’s health. Health professionals have been trained to manage the complications that result from FGM as well as the integration of FGM care in medical education programs.
Referral systems for collaboration between health providers and community members and organizations have also been strengthened.
A number of nations have passed new laws that bans FGM and created policies that outline specific steps towards the eradication of FGM. Radio networks have broadcast show-call-ins concerning the harms caused by FGM. Media’s use to influence public opinion about FGM has helped to change perceptions and altered public perceptions of girls who have not been cut.
In which countries are FGM legal?
In the 2021 edition International Bank’s “Compendium of International and National Legal Frameworks on Female Genital Mutilation”, all 84 nations have legislation in their own countries which either explicitly prohibits FGM or permits FGM for prosecution under other laws, including the penal code or criminal code, child protection laws and laws against violence against women and domestic violence law.
Africa: Algeria (2015); Benin (2003); Burkina Faso (1996); Cameroon (2016); Central African Republic (1996 2006.); Chad (2002); Comoros (1982); Congo Republic (2002); Cote d’Ivoire (1998); Djibouti (1994 2009); Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006); Egypt (2008); Eritrea (2007 and 2015.); Ethiopia (2004); The Gambia (2015); Ghana (1994, 2007); Guinea (1965, 2000, and 2016); Guinea Bissau (2011); Liberia (2018, through executive order for one year); Kenya (2001, 2011); Malawi (2000); Mauritania (2005); Mozambique (2014); Niger (2003); Nigeria (2015); Senegal (1999); Sierra Leone (2007); Somalia (2001)*; South Africa (2005); Sudan (2020); South Sudan (2008); Tanzania (1998); Togo (1998); Uganda (2010); Zambia (2005, 2011); Zimbabwe (2006).
Other: Australia (6 out of eight states from 1994 to 2006); Austria (1974, 2002); Bahrain (1976); Belgium (2000); Brazil (1984); Bulgaria (1968); Canada (1997); Colombia (2006, Resolution No. of 2009 adopted of indigenous authority); Croatia (2013); Cyprus (2003); Czech Republic (2009); Denmark (2003); Estonia (2001); Finland (2013); France (1979); Hungary (2012); India (1860); Italy (2006); Iran (1991); Iraq (2011, only applicable to Kurdistan); Ireland (2012); Kuwait (2015); Georgia (Germany (2013); Greece (1951); Latvia (2005); Lithuania (2000); Luxembourg (on Mutilations only, not specifically on genital Mutilation (2008)); Malta (1854); Mexico (2020); Netherlands (1881); New Zealand (1995); Norway (1995); Oman (2019), Pakistan (1860); Panama (2007); Peru (1991); Philippines (1930); Poland (2003); Portugal (2007); Romania (2017); Slovakia (2005); Slovenia (2008); Spain (2003); Sweden (1982,1998); Switzerland (2005, 2012); Trinidad and Tobago (2012); United Kingdom (1985 and 2003); United States (1996).
Penalties vary from minimum six months, up to the maximum of a lifetime in prison. Some countries also have monetary penalties in the punishment.
*Somalia’s Constitution explicitly declares that “circumcision of girls is prohibited”. There is however no law in the country that explicitly applies the Constitutional law, and there are no cases that have been reported where FGM crimes were prosecuted in accordance with general criminal laws. It is believed that the FGM bill has been stalled within the process of legislating for a number of years.
What exactly does The ICPD Programme of Action say regarding FGM?
It is clear that the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) acknowledges the fact that women’s violence is a common issue. It says “In a number of countries, harmful practices meant to control women’s sexuality have led to great suffering. Among them is the practice of female genital cutting, which is a violation of basic rights and a major lifelong risk to women’s health” (para 7.35).
The Programme of Action calls for “Governments and communities [to] urgently take steps to stop the practice of female genital cutting and protect women and girls from all such similar unnecessary and dangerous practices.
Steps to eliminate the practice should include strong community outreach programmes involving village and religious leaders, education and counselling about its impact on girls’ and women’s health, and appropriate treatment and rehabilitation for girls and women who have suffered cutting. Services should include counselling for women and men to discourage the practice.” (para 7.40)
Chapter 4, Para 4.4 states “Countries should act to empower women and should take steps to eliminate inequalities between men and women as soon as possible by… eliminating all practices that discriminate against women; assisting women to establish and realize their rights, including those that relate to reproductive and sexual health.” Para 4.9 says “Countries should take full measure to eliminate all forms of exploitation, abuse, harassment and violence against women, adolescents and children.”
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What global and regional instruments could be used to support the removal of FGM?
Most governments in the countries in which FGM is practiced have accepted internationally-conventions and declarations that contain provisions to promote and security in women’s health for women and girls. Examples:
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights affirms the rights of every human being to enjoy living conditions that allow them to have healthful health and health care (art. 25). The document was adopted in the General Assembly of the United Nations on the 10th of December 1948 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights contains five articles that together provide a foundation for the condemnation of FGM including article 2.
Discrimination; article 3. on the right of security of people, article 5 regarding cruel and inhumane and inhumane treatment and article 12 regarding confidentiality, and Article 25 outlining the rights to minimum level of living (including an adequate health care) and protection of motherhood.
The Convention regarding the Status of Refugees defines the definition of an individual who is a refugee, the rights of refugees and defines how to fulfill the obligations of the states. People fleeing persecution of FGM can be granted the status of refugee.
The International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights prohibit discrimination based on reason of sexuality and acknowledge the universal rights to the most attainable standards for health and psychological health (art. 12).
The Convention on the elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women obliges States Parties to “take all appropriate measure to modify or abolish customs and practices which constitute discrimination against women” (art. 2.f.) and “modify social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women, with a view to achieving the elimination of prejudices and customary and all other practices which are based on the idea of the inferiority or the superiority of either of the sexes” (art 5a).).
General advice 24, (1999) in the Convention highlights that certain customs or customary practices, like FGM and sexing, pose a substantial danger of death and disabilities and states that the State parties ensure that there are laws in place to ban FGM.
General Recommendation 14 (1990) states that State parties adopt the appropriate and efficient measures to end FGM as well as to collect and provide basic information on customary practices; and to assist women’s associations that promote the end from harmful practice; and to inspire professionals, politicians and religions and the community’s leaders to cooperate in influencing attitudes; and to implement appropriate education and training programs; to incorporate appropriate strategies for eliminating FGM in the national health policies; and to seek assistance and information and suggestions from the appropriate organization within and the United Nations system; and to include in their reports to the Committee under Articles 10, 12 and 12 of the Convention details of the steps implemented to eradicate FGM.
The Convention against Torture and other Cruel, inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishmentwas approved and was opened to the signature and the ratification and acceptance through General Assembly resolution 39/46 (entered into force in the year 1990). It is clear that the Committee against Torture clearly states in General Comment No. 2. FGM is within its purview. According to the UN Special Rapporteur on women’s violence and the UN Special Rapporteur on torture have both acknowledged that FGM could be considered torture within the framework of this Convention.
The Convention on the Rights of the Child guarantees against all forms and forms of mental and physical abuse and abuse (art 19.1) and demands that children be free from torture, cruel or inhumane treatments (art 37a); and requires States to adopt all appropriate and suitable measures to eliminate customary practices that harm health and health of kids (art 24.3).
The Vienna Declaration and the Programme of Action of the World Conference on Human Rights extended the Human Rights Agenda to include violence based on gender as well as FGM.
The International Conference on Population and Development Programme of Action demands for the governments to “urgently take steps to stop the practice of female genital cutting and protect women and girls from all such similar unnecessary and dangerous practices.”
The Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women encourages international organisations and non-governmental organizations to create guidelines and programs to end all forms of discrimination affecting girls such as female genital cutting.
The United Nations General Assembly passed The Girl Child Resolution (A/RES/51/76) which recognized FGM as a type of “discrimination against the girl child and the violation of the rights of the girl child.”
The African Charter of Human and Peoples’ Rights stresses the rights of humans. Article 4 is focused on the integrity of the individual as well as article 5 on the dignity of human beings and protection from degradation and degradation, article 16 on human rights and health, and article 18 (3) regarding the protection of human rights to the rights of women and children.
The Addis Ababa Declaration on Violence against Women is an important step towards creation of an African charter against violence against women. It provides the legal framework for the national laws that will be used to combat FGM. It was adopted by the Council of Ministers during its sixty-eighth Session , held in July of 1998 by Organization of African Unity (OAU). This Declaration was later adopted by the Assembly of Heads of State and Governments.
The Banjul Declaration condemns FGM and requires the elimination of FGM.
The United Nations Social, Humanitarian and Cultural Committee adopted a resolution calling for States to implement legislation and policies that restrict conventional or traditional methods of practice that harm women’s health and well-being of females and girls, which includes FGM.
The Ouagadougou Declaration of the Regional Workshop on the Fight against Female Genital Mutilation solicits for the establishment of networks and methods to fight FGM.
Key Actions for the Implementation of the Program of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development calls on governments to support the droits of girls and girls and guarantee their protection from oppression, discrimination and violence, as well as harmful practices. The document also urges the government to ensure that health professionals are educated and equipped to provide services to patients who have been subjected to unsafe practices.
Additional actions and Initiatives to implement the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action acknowledges the advancements made in the national effort to end FGM, and points out that discriminatory practices and standards continue to leave girls and women more vulnerable to violence against women, which includes FGM. The document calls on governments to tackle and end violence against women.
The European Parliament adopted a resolution regarding female genital cutting that calls for protection measures to those who have suffered from the practice and insisting on states to recognize the right of refuge to women and girls who are at in danger of being a victim of FGM.
The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ rights, which focuses on women’s rights in Africa Also called Maputo Protocol. Maputo Protocol calls for the “elimination of harmful practices.”
United Nations General Assembly adopted The Girl Child Resolution (A/RES/62/140) declaring that they were “deeply concerned… that female genital mutilation is an irreparable, irreversible harmful practice.”
Commission of the Status of Women approved Resolution 54/7on the end of FGM.
Africa Union Assembly/AU/Dec. 383(XVII) resulted in the resolutionstating the following “female genital mutilation (FGM) is a gross violation of the fundamental human rights of women and girls, with serious repercussions on the lives of millions of people worldwide, especially women and girls in Africa.”
The Fifty-sixth meeting of the Commission on the Status of Women adopted the draft resolution, “Ending female genital mutilation.” (E/CN.6/2012/L.1) The Secretary-General issued the report ” Ending Female Genital Mutilation” in which she summarizes how far we have come in the application of the 2010 CSW resolution 54/7.
It was the World Health Assembly passed ( resolution WHA61.16) and Progress Report 2011 ( A64/26) both of which refer to FGM.
European Parliament Resolution from June 14, 2012 that aimed at the end of female Genital Mutilation.
The United Nations General Assembly passed The Girl Child Resolution (62/140) and stated that they were “deeply concerned… that female genital mutilation is an irreparable, irreversible harmful practice.” The Secretary-General’s Report on Girl Child also included a particular focus regarding FGM ( A/64/315 2009 and A/66/257 2012).
United Nations General Assembly also adopted Resolution of 67/146 to intensify global efforts to end FGM and was reaffirmed in Resolution of 69/150, 2014 and the 71/168 resolution in 2016.
The Human Rights Council produced the resolution which calls the need for “Intensifying global efforts and sharing good practices to effectively eliminate female genital mutilation.”
FGM is part of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) under the target 5.3, “Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation.”
Replicable, accurate scientific research results can and affect our choices and understanding of ourselves, and could contribute to public debate, which includes culture and politics. If the research is based on controversial topics, it is essential to be certain about what the scientists have and hasn’t demonstrated.
In the case of complex, complex questions regarding sexuality and its nature it is possible to find a some preliminary scientific consensus. However, much is still unknown as sexuality is a remarkably complicated aspect of our lives that is a challenge to the definition of all its aspects and investigating them with precision.
For those questions that are more straightforward to research empirically for those that are more difficult to study empirically, like the rate for mental health outcomes for distinct subpopulations of sexual minority groups however, research offers some specific responses: these populations have higher levels of anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse and suicide when compared to those in the overall population.
One theory is that one of which is the socio-cultural stress model, which suggests that prejudice, stigma, and stigma are main factors behind the higher prevalence of negative psychological health performance for this subpopulation is often cited as a possible explanation for the disparity.
Although non-heterosexual and transgender individuals are frequently exposed to social stresses and discrimination, research has not proven that these issues are the sole cause or even the major part of the health gap between the non-heterosexual and transgender populations and all of the population.
It is imperative to conduct intensive research in this field to investigate the social stress theory and other theories that could explain the health differences, and to determine ways to address the health problems that exist in the subpopulations.
A few of the most popular opinions about sexual orientation, like those that support the “born that way” hypothesis do not have the backing of by scientific evidence. The literature on this subject does present a limited set of biological distinctions between non-heterosexuals and heterosexuals, but these biological differences do not suffice to establish a sexual orientation, which is the final testing of any research findings.
The most conclusive conclusion that science can offer to explain sexual preference is that some genetic factors are believed, to a lesser degree, to lead certain individuals to an heterosexual orientation.
The notion that we are “born that way” is more complicated in the context that of gender identification. In one way the evidence that suggests we have been born with a particular gender can be substantiated through direct observation the fact that males generally identify as males and females identify as women.
The reality that kids are (with the exception of a few intersex people) born biologically male or female is not subject to debate. The biological sexes perform different roles in reproduction and there are many of averages at the population level for physical and emotional differences that exist between male and female. Although biological sex is an inherent characteristic of humans but gender identity is an obscure concept.
When we review the literature on science We find that nearly nothing is understood well in the search for biological explanations of why certain individuals to assert that their gender doesn’t coincide with their biological sexuality. The research findings that exist tend to have sampling issues, and they lack longitudinal view and the ability to explain. More research is required in order to discover methods to assist in reducing the prevalence of health outcomes for mental health results and to enable an informed discussion on certain aspects in this area.
But despite the lack of scientific certainty extreme interventions are being prescribed and given to transgender patients who are identified or being identified as transgender. This is particularly troubling when the people receiving the interventions are children.
There are numerous reports on programs that include medical and surgical interventions for numerous prepubescent children with some starting who are as young as six years old and other approaches to therapy for youngsters as young as. We propose that nobody can establish who is the person of his or her gender when they are child as young as two years old.
We are skeptical about the extent to which scientists comprehend what it means for children to be able to discern the identity of their gender. Regardless of the fact that we’re very concerned by the fact that these procedures treatment, procedures, and operations seem insignificant to the extent of suffering of the children and they are in all likelihood too early since the majority kids who identify with having the gender of their biological sex won’t be able to continue doing so when they become adults. Furthermore there is a dearth of studies that are reliable about the long-term consequences of these procedures. We suggest caution in this respect.
This report to convey a complicated collection of work in a manner that can be understood by an audience that includes experts and people who are not experts. Everyone , including scientists and doctors and educators and parents and teachers, legislators and activists should have access to reliable information regarding the sexuality of a person and the gender of a person.
Although there is plenty of controversy regarding how society treats its LGBT members but no cultural or political opinions should hinder us from learning about the related clinical and health and public health issues and helping those who suffer with mental health issues related to their sexuality.
Our research suggests a few possibilities for future research in the psychological, biological, and social sciences. Further research is required to understand the causes behind the increasing prevalence of mental health issues in these LGBT subpopulations.
This social stress model that is the dominant research on this subject is in need of improvement and probably needs to be complemented by different theories. Furthermore, the mechanisms by how sexual desires evolve and change over time are, for the most part, unexplored. Research on empirical evidence could assist us in better understanding relationships as well as health and sexual health, and mental health.
Critically evaluating and challenging both sides that make up this “born that way” paradigm — both the idea that sexuality is determined by biology and permanent, and the related notion that there is a predetermined gender, independent of the biological characteristics of sex allow us to consider important questions about sexuality, sexual behavior as well as gender and individuals and social products in a new light.
Certain of these issues are beyond the scope of this research, but the ones we’ve examined indicate that there’s a huge divide between what is being said in the public debate and what science has proven.
A thoughtful, scientific study and cautious, cautious interpretation of the results could help us better understand the sexual orientation and the gender of a person. There’s still a lot of work to be accomplished and numerous unanswered questions.
We’ve attempted to summarize and present a complex collection of research conducted by scientists on certain of these topics. We hope that this document can contribute to the ongoing debate concerning human sexuality and identity. We expect that this report will provoke lively reactions, and we welcome them.
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